Vývoj mluvení EN

Věk (rok/měsíc) Vývoj jazyka

R:     Receptive language: that which the child understands. 
         For example, you may say to a one year old -- Get your shoes.
         They will get the shoes, but cannot say those same words. 
         Receptive language comes first.

E:      Expressive language: begins with words the child understands and can SAY.
         Many hearing impaired children have a vastly greater receptive vocabulary than expressive because of delayed speech production.
MLU: Mean length of utterance: mean number of morphemes per utterance
0/0 - 0/3
  • attends to speaker's mouth or eyes
  • moves in response to voice
  • expresses feelings by cooing (one syllable - "ah"), gurgling (at back of throat), and crying (E)
  • exhibits differentiated crying (E)
  • vocalizes to caregiver's smile and voice and to express pleasure (E)
0/4 - 0/6
  • smiles at speaker (R)
  • vocalizes to objects (E)
  • laughs
  • says "mama/dada" without meaning (E)
  • babbles to gain attention (E)
  • shows pleasure/ displeasure by vocalizing (E)
0/7 - 0/9
  • recognizes names of family members (R)
  • responds to "no" most of the time (R)
  • attends to pictures (R)
  • uses gesture and vocalization to protest (E)
  • vocalizes during games (E)
  • sings along with a familiar song (E)
0/10 - 1/0
  • recognizes familiar persons or objects when named (R)
  • looks at named pictures with an adult (R)
  • attends to new words (R)
  • identifies two body parts on self (R)
  • gives objects upon verbal request. (R)
  • uses social gestures (waving "bye-bye") (E)
  • vocalizes with intent frequently (E)
  • uses onomatopoeias to refer to objects (E)
  • says one to two words spontaneously
1/0 - 1/6
  • follows 1-step commands without a gesture/verbal cue alone (R)
  • uses true words within jargon-like utterances (E)
  • combines vocalization and gesture to obtain a desired object (E)
  • identifes/points to 3+ body parts (on self or doll), clothing item, or a toy on verbal request (R)
  • names objects on request (E)
  • gives objects if asked (R)
  • by 18 months, uses 20 - 100 meaningful words; 50% of words are nouns  (E)

1/6 - 2/0
  • follows 2-step related  commands without visual cues (R)
  • points to 4+ body parts (on self or doll) (R)
  • uses question intonation to ask yes/no questions (E)
  • uses 2-word phrases/sentences frequently by 24 months ("more milk," "a doggie," "read book"); MLU 1.50-2.0 (E) 
  • names most common objects (E)
  • understands questions where? and what's that? (R)
  • begins using pronouns like "my," "me," "mine"; refers to self by name (E)
  • uses 200+ words (E)
2/0 - 2/6
  • responds appropriately to location phrases ("in," "on")  (R)
  • recognizes family member names (R)
  • uses "and" ("mommy and daddy") (E)
  • uses 3-word sentences frequently; MLU 2.0-2.5 (E)
  • begins using verb endings (-ing) ("Mommy pushing") (E)
  • refers to self as "me" rather than by name (E)
  • asks simple questions ("Where ball?" "What Daddy doing?" "What color?") (E)
  • uses number + noun ("two doggie") (E)
2/6 - 3/0
  • answers questions with "yes" or "no" (E)
  • understands the concepts of "one" and "all" (R)
  • uses subject pronoun: he (E)
  • asks "What happened?" (E)
  • uses "gonna" and "wanna" (E)
  • uses 3-4 word sentences; converses with self; MLU 2.5-3.0 (E)
  • shows interest in "why" and "how" explanations (R)
  • expands use of  verb endings (-ing), plurals/possessives ("eat cookies"), contractions (E)
  • begins the "why" question stage; asks "wh"- questions ("What's that?" and "Where ball?") (E)
  • uses 2-/3-word negative phrases (/"no want that")(E)
  • asks for "another" (E)
  • understands "now," "soon," and "later" (R)
  • begins using singular/ plural noun-verb agreement (E)
  • "converses:" relates simple imaginative tales; describes actions in book (E)
  • vocabulary: 900+ words (E)
3/0 - 4/0
  • uses possessives (E)
  • uses "we," "she," and "they" (E)
  • uses "some," "many," and "all" (E)
  • uses present progressive: is/are/am + verb ing (E)
  • Uses some irregular verbs (E)
  • Uses "can't," "not," and "didn't" (E)
  • uses "hafta," "have to," and "want to" (E)
  • uses 3rd person singular –s (E)
  • expresses ideas and feelings rather than just talking about the world around him/her (E)
  • begins using analogies, comparisons; can complete opposite analogies ("sister is a girl; brother is a ___.") (E)
  • describes the use of objects such as "fork," "car" (E)
  • enjoys poems and recognizes language absurdities such as, "Is that an elephant on your head?" (R)
  • uses do to ask yes/no questions (E)
  • vocabulary: 1500+ words (E)
4/0 - 5/0
  • asks what/who/where or why do questions (E)
  • asks what/who/where or why did questions (E)
  • asks  whose (E)
  • uses does to ask yes/no questions (E)
  • converses with longer, more complex sentences, but still makes grammar errors; MLU 4.5+ (E)
  • uses has, does, had (E)
  • uses because, when, if, and so in clauses (E)
  • uses these and those (E) 
  • uses before and after (E)
  • uses comparative adjectives ("small-smaller") (E)
  • answers "why" and "how" questions ; replies to questions like "What is a house made of?" (E)
  • By age 5, uses 2500 words (E)
  • ends conversations appropriately
5/0 - 6/0
  • stabilizes correct usage of irregular plurals and past tense/irregular verbs (E)
  • uses pronouns, prepositions, and articles correctly, consistently (E)
  • uses superlative –est (E)
  • uses –er to form nouns (teach/teacher) (E)
  • uses future progressive: will be + verb + __ing (E)
  • asks wh questions with does (E)
  • uses sentences with 8+ words; uses compound and complex sentences (E)
  • understands time sequences (what happened first, second, etc.)  (R)
  • vocabulary:  2800+ words (R); 2500+ (E)
6/0 - 8/0
  • uses irregular comparative/ superlative: better, best: worse, worst (E)
  • uses past perfect tense ("She had read the book.")
  • uses past perfect progressive ("had been camping") (E)
  • asks have questions with present perfect ("Have you been there before?") (E)
  • passive voice developed by most children (E)
  • uses well formed narratives (E)